tv Sophie Co. Visionaries RT October 11, 2019 10:30pm-11:01pm EDT
because all the probabilities but from the patients point of view as patients and i've been a patient myself and my own son had a brain tumor we want certainty we want to know what will happen to me not a 95 percent this or a 5 percent that so it was a huge difference between the doctor's perspective and the patient's perspective we're going to actually swap roles and a little bit before i do that i know that you specialize in. brain surgery when local anesthesia yes there is a loop ation isn't sleeping you know you're throwing him what is the reasoning behind it because with is a new plies for certain sorts of jumah tumours which are actually part of the brain in the brain so consisting in effect to bring tissue not of nerve tissue where the cells called liles cells surround and support them kind of look after the nerve cells and the tumor looks very much like the brain feels like the brain it doesn't
come with little dotted black lines in a pair of scissors saying cut head think cut. and if the tumor is in the very important part of the brain for instance the speech area most of us most of us have speech or movement here just looking at the brain with the patient a nice that doesn't tell you where to stop because the age of the tumor looks like the brain. is the patient's awake you can ask the patient to do things you can also position to talk you can use electrical stimulation to work out roughly where you are so do you ever seeing a significant change in a person's brain as you operate live so for say i gonna like this and the case isn't there. was this common reason is something that has an epileptic fit water operating and then they can become unconscious. so paralyzed will stop talking
things like that if if there's a problem with the operation and you actually start a new start damaging important brain the patient will start to lose the function of that part of the brains or occasion the patients is start to lose the ability to talk or become paralyzed on the opposite side of the body is a real risk it happens very often they have what makes operating brain much more difficult and sensitive than operating something like hard or. do you think 1st of all the brain does not heal in the way bone and muscle and skin heals when you win you win every time you. the brain you damage it and he won't recover and secondly the brain is incredibly sent delicate if you can damage some parts of the brain you can kill the patient does by damaging in one of 2
millimeters the brain tissue other parts of the brain you can actually other parts of the brain can sustain quite a lot of damage in particular at the front on the right without the person's leaving to suffer in a home. but is very vulnerable it's very delicate it has the it is the consistency of. thick crean's is the main the main surgical instrument is a socket the minutes of action clean the brain surgery is horribly crude actually people think it's so terrible what are these high tech but with actual reality is actually quite crude compared to the incredible completely stupid the brain to do how to like cut the skull something right you know that's easy answer i mean it's that simple bits and that spits that you can do with the patient awake it like that and see it in the skin the problems all start once you open the membrane that covers the brain injuries and that's where the trouble starts that's where it
becomes very dangerous but it's a bit like if someone has been doing this over and over again for years and years evan you know it is a job like anything else and you've said it yourself it's not the process is not a job like anything else because you're dealing in people's lives and if you make mistakes the consequence is a terrible night some surgeons and some doctors become very detached from their patients and it depends on the culture you work in i've worked in countries all over the world and some countries. really seem to have minimal human emotional contact with what is better to be emotionally involved. volved or to be that it's a question the balance it's a question of what patients expect. in countries like don and nepal and a certain stand ukraine all of which i know well the patients and certainly the patients
families often do not want to move troops and they really don't want to be told how bad the disease is. in england and in america on the whole patients and their families ones and they have the truth more all this but even then. with with diseases like cancer where we can't cure if it is accounts we can't cure or to get the balance right between. giving the patient who can being realistic is very difficult and to get that balance right and you often fail you have to have some emotional rapport with the patients if you want to completely cold detached technician you will not you will not handle these problems well but what about the process itself i mean if you had someone in your life that you really laugh when you get a brain surgery would you rather do it yourself oh no you couldn't you'll fall to him and my son had a brain tumor so that's what i'm larry would ask of these roles that i linked i was
a jet i was doing general surgery and training at the time he was only 3 months old and some people say who did you operate yourself missing the way you couldn't because all your oriel detached all your mechanisms of self-preservation and the taps meant it was simply too anxious i once operated on a close personal friend vent one of my daughters i'm godmother with a malignant brain tumor so i knew she was going to die and the operation was simply was called a biopsy confirm the diagnosis and a very very simple operations a bit reluctant agreed to do it because the family were very keen i should because we were close friends and even that i found almost impossible. i was so anxious because i was not detached it's just what's the hardest decision you had to me because i understand brain surgery is a large decision making events will progress i had to make many difficult decisions
i think some of the ones. many regrets. over 40 years of practice and some of the most difficult decisions. when i treated people too much i should have stopped i operated really when there was no realistic hope and all i did was add to the patients and the family is suffering and i can think of quite a few patients where i did that on the other hand with surgeons who are cold and detached they'll do that and it doesn't doesn't trouble them so you've sat they will actually never know how the brain works i think is unlikely i mean the whole point about the future is unpredictable so i think it's unlikely it will ever understand the brain and the way we can understand how a computer works or a clock works and i think it's unlikely that somebody once said you can't cut butter with
a knife made of butter. but i don't know with the present technology we have. m.r.i. brain scanning electret implantation in monkeys and a certain extent and human beings is very limited to how much it will tell us and we can't experiment on ourselves that's so we can't we can't cut saipan our fellow humans brains and sit around them the experiments on them we can do a certain extent on chimpanzees and i feel rather sort of chimpanzees and who is becoming increasingly difficult ethical reasons so there are a major limits to what we can do this or actual scientific research we can do on the brain so following that logic you never really actually know what a patient's brain will do after the surgery surgery and other has to be well i you know you know it was stents because i mean. we understand how various parts of the brain more important to some times that we know the areas the speech and the vision
sure will tie. i didn't together in the complicated ways we didn't understand. but they did with the operation on a pretty good idea what you what you can get away with speak without damaging the patient and when all parishioners. and we were going to take a short break right now and when we're back we'll continue talking to one of the world's top surgeons dr henry marsh stay with us. you read it the. room that was revealed to me i'm so smart it's.
flaws are simply not accountable and we're just adding more and more to the. totally destabilize the global economy you need to protect yourself and get in for a watch guys or for. what politicians do something to. put themselves on the line to get accepted or rejected. so when you want to be president. or somehow want to be that's. what you're going to be cross with a white woman for free in the morning can't be good. i'm interested always in the waters of our. first city.
and we're back with dr henry marsh one of the world's top neurosurgeons henry how closely are nearest science and nearest surgery elated and in sense that discoveries in your science actually make advances and well not not very what's called functional neurosurgery where you put electrodes into the brain for conditions like parkinson's disease and things like that. and again and on very epilepsy surgery because it was quite literally involved you can take a look cool record some single brain cells and the planning to do but in terms of the v.a. every day problems like operating on patients with hemorrhage is head injuries
things like that people in here is is a completely different is a world away from the everyday world of the news so you don't think of a human brain quake near scientists think of the huge computer you know on the on the as a as a surgeon i'm more like a plumber i mean the diff the relationship between neurosurgeons and mirrors is rather like the relationship between plumbers and physicists who deal in the make the quantum mechanical properties of the metals in a way is a big gap so when you're operating on brains you can remove something great you can remove belated to tongue or to see you know or to hear and you had something new at some of their press and there you are and this has been there been sort of fashions for implantation maybe using fetal brains from feet foetuses the stems. but none of this really work to get in terms of literally
compliance not really i mean there are there are there are various computer brain interfaces where you put electrodes on the brain i mean has been you. some people can paralyzed and then some of them can then by thinking can actually move a reporting robotic arm i've read this crazy magical surgical records where it's at that human brain can be cut in half well it partially because in them that they don't have a name for that brendan cold callous or to me exactly brain is famous the research done of a 19 eighties gets an eager in spirit for certain sorts of epilepsy dividing part of the brain in the middle the 2 cerebral hemispheres the joint the 2 halls of the brain up here which then joined together with like the trunk of
a tree the brain stem is the trunk you can't touch that if you touch that people die or left to be disabled but then the trunk splits into 2 main hemispheres like that and they're joined. i think all the copas collision which is billions of nerve fibers connecting the top of the right side of the brain to top of the rest of the brain and if you cut part of that it can help certain sorts of epilepsy in particular a form of epilepsy where people as full on the ground called a drop attack and these people appear normal if you met them you wouldn't know a part of their brain had been cut in half but you can carry out experiments on them where there's a sort of barrier which divides the v. what they're seeing the visual field so the right side of the brain can and you see things on the left and the left side of the brain can and see things on the right and supposedly they also suffer from split personality was not able to do in the
sense this because i mean sort of with this special experimental set up it's thought to separate people in to a certain extent the same already so it out back. you got but the story is told of one man who had a split brain operation and lost his temper with his wife and wanted to hit with his left hand which was controlled by the right hemisphere and then his right hand pulled it back that may not be true but is an illustration of the way you end up with this sort of split personality so let's just roll forward i know you don't like this whole science fiction but we're not there yet i'm tired of something else . let's say we do have this crazy technology to achieve it where 2 people it's a you and i we want to swap won hands here with another is it possible. no way
they were ok there. 85000000000 nerve cells in the human brain if you took one cubic millimeter of the serval cortex but surfaces a brain that can contain up 210-0000 nerves ells and 1000000000 electrical connections that is seriously complicated complicate but is a radically. theoretically i mean the brain i didn't i didn't believe in the humans so i believe it was in you and i was thinking and feeling at the moment is generated by their activity of our brains but we really don't. i mean yes we can we understand a certain about vision movement but how consciousness arises how pain arises. and there's no way it happens it definitely for most people like myself. within the knowledge of the brain. thought and feeling all physical physical
phenomena but the fact of matter is contemporary science even a little of quantum mechanics cannot explain it which means there's a big. there we're very busy huge gap in all scientific understanding of the world already by a time when just if we were understand that's where evolution of human race ends probably to that's why we don't know much about it anyway as you told me you don't watch much t.v. so i don't assume you've watched this series altered carbon no it's pretty much about how you can take one person's brain and transplant it into another one sensor like shockley i mean are you at hand this is that. this is from the it's there's no way we can ever achieve well in the way that i'm not not in the foreseeable future more than the fools who. likewise the idea that some people have we can download all brains on the computer stress what it one mosque is saying or say that you can
and hans human brain with that spirit that's variously because they're saying they already experiment in on this to this very to a moat saying it's impossible but our present level of mirrors and technology there's no way we can do it so this whole new fashion of maybe becoming immortal where we're trying to miss yeah yeah. since fairytales. fear of death written in another form of giving people of last we have a deep fear of death we have is the need to feel will live forever which until the modern age took the form of religious belief in an afterlife the need for that belief is still there but not as some people dress it up in suit pseudo scientific terms all i'm saying is that when we seem to days on medicine how people are being
rather test for for me it's like you can replace an organ when artificial or a girl but then you're asking yourself maybe someday in theory it's possible i won't say it's impossible but 85000000000 cells trillions of connections between them it's quite quite difficult so that like put this cyber port in your brain that's like not happening and there is sensors and sensors so tell us something if we do understand how memory is stored in a brain or in a very little there's no way we can remove what we don't want from the brain or i mean we understand some of the with a limited understanding but if this way we know which bits of the brain if they get damaged where we lose the ability to make new short term memories in particular parts of the brain called the hippocampus in the form of these so called experiments of nature you see people have had damage either from a head in real from an operation they can't make short term memories or long term
memories which is what eventually we lose without sinus disease and dementia seem to be more to do with the brain as a whole row than any individual points but maybe he can they've kate. a memory in the brain there having said that we know that maps. locate him hippocampus is a famous study done on london taxi drivers you have an m.r.i. scanning which a london taxi drivers you have to pass this examination called the knowledge they have made the entire road map for london and not just the layout which a one way road which is the quickest way of getting from knowing from belsize park to. brompton road or something they take this to live and the hippocampus in these london taxi drivers runs a pos the test a bigger than the ones of people who failed the test likewise you know the
professional pianists have bigger hand in the movement harry of the brain than the norm in nonprofessional pinnace so i don't know if you've operated any real time geniuses but what their brain be any different from not what you can see i mean as i go as idea of an a lenin's brain was kept and einstein's brain was cut into slices this is a very simplistic show but by definition everybody's brain is different because we are all different we are all brains every time we think a thought that is a physical process in our brains so an awful lot of current mirrors take the. cognitive neuroscience which is what psychologists call themselves is really does saying well yes when we think certain thoughts certain parts of the brain a more active than that end of a day explain anything because we know already that everything we think and feel is
a physical process in our brains so you're a man of science i don't suppose you believe in anything like the afterlife or in so what it will put it this way i think it's unlikely that you can't prove or disprove it but it seems unlikely to me and and why is the nearest seems unlikely because i see. and have seen many many people who suffered damage to the front part of the brain which is where all social behavior and moral behavior seems to be organized because people have suffered particular head injuries and suffer damage to the front of the brain they suffer a personality change they saw the personality change in terms of the. behavior towards other people is also almost always for the worse they become crude of. course disinhibited and you can reverse it any way and and if if the moral is
what we think makes us particularly human can be omitted by physical damage to our brain well when our brains die i reckon we die well i don't necessarily i mean the moral part is more like a religious part but i'm just saying it could be anything but what would that mean that those billions and billions and billions of nerves that are connected to each other and their existence the minute person's heart stops to be well. there's some rather alarming work done recently in america looking at dead pigs brains where they went to an average. for them to some brains out of pigs that have been killed if you. can show that some of the brain cells are still alive they'll die in time and or to means goodness no. likewise you know some patience in what's called persistent vegetative state has lithe without moving have to be fed in as a they were a new live because of medical treatment some of them is seen as a some kind of activity in their brains that we don't know what it means. all right
harry thanks over israel so it is very strange but still thanks a lot fresher at least some light into this strange world trade miriam surgery costing lives is to say it's even more at home silence on the dole and then you find on a new tools on the of a sides religion it's the other way around is a closed door and that all the christians are all with sons you also to question you have an answer and then the whole the new questions of him that's what's so interesting as a bus that's how life works in general. as we get older it kind of. anyways bankers are like that are going to tell chad to plan your time searching in good good light over everything thank you very much right.
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a decade of proxy war this syrian old dooms 2 years of proxy peace. in this community there are people who believe that it's ok to suffer actual food on the table it's really hard there are no jobs and you see that i've got kids that ask and as a parent. i can come up with a lot of arguments there's a lot of conflict in the game between the most of the conflict i would say the balls around money and also their money is made. because one on each other does he know each other is good business the state of california alone makes $6000000000.00 a year of the prison complexes to get some 20 a life where. you don't care and one of my cares about your so your care might
anything. you know world of big partners. and conspiracy it's time to wake up to dig deeper to hit the stories that mainstream media refuses to tell more than ever we need to be smarter we need to stop slamming the door on the bath shouting past each other it's time for critical thinking it's time to fight for the middle for the truth the time is now for watching closely watching the hawks. i. know they are. i. i was not.
i. i i i i i. i. hundreds of people in a central russian city to the execution of a modest suspect thought for 9 year old girl is found strangled to death. in ecuador more protest as a confirmed killed. intensifies following more than a week of unrest though if a government measures. turning up the heat on joe biden the ukrainian m.p. publishes documents he says reveal corruption involving key on the us presidential election. and a privilege and soviet cosmonaut alexei off who conducted the 1st ever space walk